AG eBA L1_ Proj. Agile vs WF Using Assesmnet Example

Normally, human brain is capable to be at max 3 sigma level. To reach Six Sigma level in project is fairly impossible task, only machines can reach 6 Sigma level accuracy i.e. without including any human factor (example- processor of your computer). As soon as the human factor is involved the sigma level drops. Although, we use the term Six Sigma in Project Management- it in fact means the usage of tools from Six Sigma – not the Six times Standard Deviation (6σ). Our project specification and defect analysis normally happens at the 3 sigma level. You will learn about the specification limits when you reach the Control Chart Video.

Unit Objective:

Past performance assessments for training you used is the simplest, in fact very simplest version. There is a flaw and the flaw is that you were able to measure the progress in very high level only – if someone asked you specific measures for each questions then it would be a challenge for you to provide the values you gained on each questions

  • Look at new training assessment document
    • Activity/Task level value & waste analysis
  • New Product Delivered as Agile. How would it be delivered as Waterfall?
    • What did you learn from the concept of delivering this new version – is it agile or waterfall delivery?

If we had to create the similar (new training assessment) document as the waterfall project then you wouldn’t see the initial version – always a final product is deployed in waterfall and this new version would be the final product if identified during planning. If the changes where identified during execution then a change request would be created to enhance the previous solution. If the product has already been deployed then a new project would be created (as Migration project).

It is agile delivery and using agile – lets you change the scope however it is not easily possible in waterfall. So here you go – this is another clear example which differentiates Agile from waterfall

  • Concepts of Six Sigma, Lean and their comparison against standard PM methodologies and Agile
  • Summarize what have we learned so far and closeout this phases?
  • What’s next?
    • We will now start looking into our project and write requirements and identifying and designing solution using our project
    • We will then create UAT artifacts and perform small UAT
    • During upcoming videos – I will share the working templates and ask you to create your own templates and save them into Google drive or one drive. Then you will use those templates to document your requirements , solutions, testing details and the plans
    • After the project ends, I will continue to give you supplemental bonus videos specific to lean, six sigma, JIT, TQM and other advance Agile Techniques (like Lean Kanban) & project Management models

Our project will be delivered using the simpler modified versions – just enough to help you digest the concepts easily

  • Success Measure: Trainee will be able to create project process requirement and solutions to meet the project need (seeing what you have been in last few days with new angle of view, enhances the understanding of subject). You should now have clear understanding in when to use Agile SCRUM & when Waterfall is best PLUS how to use lean to protect your models from potential risks ?

Unit Videos

Instructor Video(s)

Note: All the future videos will get complicated one step at a time. In order to make things easier, please continue to work on your note and do enough research. Each video of 30 minutes will require at least 3 to 6 times of your effort depending on your past knowledge & skills on the subject i.e. 1 & 1/2 hours to 3 hours of your research, practice and dedication. If you continue to make notes for each videos and also do the research (searching google on what others have to say on the topic- only the credible source & reading books) then eventually you will  start getting what your trainer is trying to deliver to you. As a support, all upcoming units will have a section where you can provide your feedback on the content complexity. I will do my best to make content easier be  recording the videos and providing all you will need to get through these concepts of Business Analysis (specifically Strategic/Enterprise Business Analysis). There are two benefits of documenting and participating in all assignments:

Training Assessment OneDrive


Training Assessment Download

Reference Video(s):

n/a- this unit doesn’t have reference video

Reference Artifacts(s):

  • n/a- this unit doesn’t have reference article yet- Refer to the book “

Unit Slides:

Unit Notes:

Comparing all Popular Models/Methodologies:

 Idn. PM Methodology Six Sigma Lean Agile
Process Flow Initiate      
Plan Define Identify & Define Value
Map the Value Stream
Create Flow
Execute Measure
Establish Pull
Seek Perfection
1. Individuals and interactions over processes and tools
2. Working software over comprehensive documentation
3. Customer collaboration over contract negotiation
4. Responding to change over following a plan
Monitor & Control Improve
Focus Model (Project Process Focused) Quality, data & Accuracy (Problem Focused) Simplicity, Improvement, Efficiency (Value  Focused ) Flexibility

Although, you have not yet seen the workings of Six Sigma Tools, and implementation of lean in your environment- It is important for now that you understand following items before moving on to next video ( I will teach you in simple ways how these tools can be easily used in projects and in any operation):

Values of lean:

  1. Identify & Define Value
  2. Map the Value Stream
  3. Create Flow “
  4. “Establish Pull
  5. Seek Perfection”

Key Ideas :

  1. Change agent, supports adoptive model
  2. What are the values we want to create (Value is for community or organization). Profit is not a value but the use of profit for overall benefit is Value
    1. Behavior, Feature & Feature Capabilities (Qualities) are measured to understand the value & waste in product and process
    2. Assumptions- Underlining Assumptions (ideal -future vs. current) are identified by collaborative learning and development. We identify the gaps & close the gap (5 Whys, root cause, fish bone, mind mapping etc used as tools)
  3. Lean is a Situational Approach. There is no magic one model to solve all problems. Each problem is unique and it can only be solved after understand the scope and identifying the most feasible solution (not yet optimal) – it can be improved by Lean by letting the system live & flourish (Creating the Flow) and collaboratively seeking for optimization & improvements (Establish Pull & Seek Perfection)
  4. To do this we will need a way to measure the success – we then use Six Sigma strategically & statistically to define, measure, analyze, improve and control the process.
    1. We may not need Six Sigma tools if we can remember all these things and can calculate and analyze for improvement. Look at the chart below.
    2. Visuals and data for visual helps us correct our underlying assumptions and helps us improve collaboratively
  5. In order to keep all these activities in a system you need a model to be defined for the project – i.e. how are you going to deliver a product (Project Process Requirements). Alternatively, it means you need a standard model or methodology (standard doesn’t mean waterfall or Agile SCRUM rather it means your standardized Project Process Requirements)


Six Sigma:

Six sigma process is one in which 99.99966% of all opportunities to produce some feature of a part are statistically expected to be free of defects.

If you are producing (yielding) Then your Sigma level is:
30.90% 1
62.90% 2
93.30% 3
99.40% 4
99.98% 5
99.9997% 6

Normally, human brain is capable to be at max 3 sigma level. To reach Six Sigma level in project is fairly impossible task, only machines can reach 6 Sigma level accuracy i.e. without including any human factor (example- processor of your computer). As soon as the human factor is involved the sigma level drops. Although, we use the term Six Sigma in Project Management- it in fact means the usage of tools from Six Sigma – not the Six times Standard Deviation (6σ). Our project specification and defect analysis normally happens at the 3 sigma level. You will learn about the specification limits when you reach the Control Chart Video.

Major two types of Six Sigma.

Six Sigma projects follow two project methodologies inspired by Deming’s Plan-Do-Check-Act Cycle. These methodologies, composed of five phases each, bear the acronyms DMAIC and DMADV.

  1. DMAIC is used for projects aimed at improving an existing business process.

The DMAIC project methodology has five phases:

  1. Define the system, the voice of the customer and their requirements, and the project goals, specifically.
  2. Measure key aspects of the current process and collect relevant data; calculate the ‘as-is’ Process Capability.
  3. Analyze the data to investigate and verify cause-and-effect relationships. Determine what the relationships are, and attempt to ensure that all factors have been considered. Seek out root cause of the defect under investigation.
  4. Improve or optimize the current process based upon data analysis using techniques such as design of experiments, poka yoke or mistake proofing, and standard work to create a new, future state process. Set up pilot runs to establish process capability.
  5. Control the future state process to ensure that any deviations from the target are corrected before they result in defects. Implement control systems such as statistical process control, production boards, visual workplaces, and continuously monitor the process.
  6. Some organizations add a Recognize step at the beginning, which is to recognize the right problem to work on, thus yielding an RDMAIC methodology.

  1. DMADV is used for projects aimed at creating new product or process designs.

The DMADV project methodology features five phases:

  1. Define design goals that are consistent with customer demands and the enterprise strategy.
  2. Measure and identify CTQs (characteristics that are Critical To Quality), Measure product capabilities, production process capability, and measure risks.
  3. Analyze to develop and design alternatives
  4. Design an improved alternative, best suited per analysis in the previous step
  5. Verify the design, set up pilot runs, implement the production process and hand it over to the process owner(s).

  1. DFSS, known as “Design For Six Sigma”

This methodology can have the following five steps.

Define –> Identify –> Design –> Optimize –>Verify

  1. Define: Define what the customers want, or what they do not want.
  2. Identify: Identify the customer and the project.
  3. Design: Design a process that meets customers needs.
  4. Optimize: Determine process capability and optimize the design.
  5. Verify: Test, verify, and validate the design.

Quality management tools and methods used in Six Sigma

Within the individual phases of a DMAIC or DMADV project, Six Sigma utilizes many established quality-management tools that are also used outside Six Sigma. The following table shows an overview of the main methods used.

  1. 5 Whys
  2. Statistical and fitting tools
    1. Analysis of variance
    2. General linear model
    3. ANOVA Gauge R&R
    4. Regression analysis
    5. Correlation
    6. Scatter diagram
    7. Chi-squared test
  3. Axiomatic design
  4. Business Process Mapping/Check sheet
  5. Cause & effects diagram (also known as fishbone or Ishikawa diagram)
  6. Control chart/Control plan (also known as a swimlane map)/Run charts
  7. Cost-benefit analysis
  8. CTQ tree
  9. Design of experiments/Stratification
  10. Histograms/Pareto analysis/Pareto chart
  11. Pick chart/Process capability/Rolled throughput yield
  12. Quality Function Deployment (QFD)
  13. Quantitative marketing research through use of Enterprise Feedback Management (EFM) systems
  14. Root cause analysis
  15. SIPOC analysis (Suppliers, Inputs, Process, Outputs, Customers)
  16. COPIS analysis (Customer centric version/perspective of SIPOC)
  17. Taguchi methods/Taguchi Loss Function
  18. Value stream mapping
  19. FMEA

And many more as you need! We will learn about most of these tools during project and even after completion of project as part of Bonus Classes. 

Learning Lean as part of training:

READ ME BEFORE PROCEEDING: This video is older video and only here just to use for reference (i.e. if in case you didn’t watch it in previous unit. If you already watched it then please proceed to next section –> Unit FEEDBACK & Assignments

Video On How to Add  Value, Remove Waste, Optimize as a whole (LEAN TRAINEE ASSESSMENT)

As a trainee you must seek to continuously learn – however, learning is not just enough for business analyst. As a business analysis you  should practically practice, understand and use/re-use  and enhance your documentation, analysis, planning, communicating and managing interpersonal skills. Let’s start with this daily practice of updating the artifact “LEAN TRAINEE ASSESSMENT” link below and the instruction on how to start, manage and continually maintain and analyse your success based on the prioritized values – are provided in the video below. This video will be available in all upcoming units util you reach Methodologies section where you will see how the same document can be used in million dollar projects. You will create waste if not a continuous improvement. It is up to you  either you want to learn to measure the success and efficiently convert the unusable data into valuable information – or choose to loose it. That is the reason this section is not mandatory to complete. It is only for those who wish to improve. 

Potential Value List for Value Analysis (Measuring Your Continues Improvement & Success)

Major Objective Do you have understanding of how to Plan Requirements and related activities & artifacts ?
What kind of sessions would you conduct for requirements planning
 Are you able to manage, monitor and control requirements ?
Do you know how to analyze requirements and related activities & artifacts ?
Do you know how to document requirements ?
Do you know how to communicate requirements to all stakeholders ? <you can’t just send them via email>
Can you Demonstrate a solid understanding of the underlying principles of business analysis on which the IIBA® standard `BABOK®` Guide is based
Can you Articulate the key roles, responsibilities and skills required of a successful Business Analyst
Can you Formulate a requirements’ management plan which will define all types of requirements including business, stakeholder, solution (functional & non-functional) & transition requirements
Can you  elicit quality requirements
Can you use business analysis techniques: analysis, modeling (process & data), documentation, communicating, verifying & validating requirements.
Can you handle  change requests effectively ?
Can you identifying root causes to problems ? How to identify root cause?
Can you Develop and generate creative and accurate solutions ?
Can you  write the IIBA® CBAP® or CCBA° exam* ?
Acquire the skills & competencies to perform Business Analysis (PM) Professionally
Key Items What entry points for process/activity ?
What are exit points for process/activity ?
What are importance of having entry points and exit points ?
Why performance evaluation of team and project is important ?
What are the names of certifications IIBA provides ?
What are the names of certifications PMI provides ?
Stakeholders What is RACI List ?
What is Stakeholder List ?
Who are the project stakeholders ? Are they the project team or they are everyone who is directly of indirectly impacted by project ?
What are the important components that goes inside Stakeholder List ?
What is Stakeholder Analysis ?
Is stakeholder analysis same  as stakeholder expectation ?
Why is it important to understand stakeholder current assignments (role at job) ?
Why is it important to understand past knowledge or experience of Stakeholder in a project ?
Why is it important to know about the availability of Stakeholders ?
Why is required to gather the contact detail of each stakeholder who is involved in the project ?
Why is it important to understand the influence and impact of stakeholder on project ?
Why is it important to understand the influence and impact of projects on stakeholder and/or his domain/role?
Project Team Who is Business analysts in a project? What are their roles ?
Who is Solution Analyst in a project? What are their roles ?
Who is Who is System Analyst in a project? What are their roles ?
Who is Business System Analyst in a project? What are their roles ?
Who is Quality Analyst  in a project? What are their roles ?
Who is Developers  in a project? What are their roles ?
Who is Project managers in a project? What are their roles ?
Who is Enterprise Analyst in a project? What are their roles ?
Who is Process Analyst /Business Process Analyst in a project? What are their roles ?
Who is Subject matter experts in a project? What are their roles ?
Who is Business Sponsor or Owner in a project? What are their roles ?
Who is program manger in a program ?
Who is Team leaders (leads) in a project? What are their roles ?
Difference between leads and Managers ?
Who is Consultants in a project? What are their roles ?
Who can be the project team members of a project? What are their roles ?
Who is UAT Lead ? What are their roles ?
Major Objective Can you explain what is Enterprise analysis ?
Can you explain what is Stakeholder analysis  ?
Can you explain what is Business  planning & analysis ?
Can you explain what are requirements & their fundamental attributes  ?
Can you explain how you perform  Requirement management & monitoring  ?
Can you explain what are the possible types of  Requirements in the project life cycle from start to end ?
Can you explain what is Requirements elicitation techniques  ?
Can you explain what is professional communication for success  ?
Can you explain what is Facilitating the requirement workshop  ?
Can you explain what is modeling  ? What is its importance ?
Can you explain what are Business process modeling techniques  ?
Can you explain what are Use cases ?
Can you explain what are  Business rules of requirements ?
What is  data modeling ?
Can you explain what is Requirements verification & validation process ? How are they performed ?
Can you explain what is Solution assessment & transitioning to deployment ?
Major Topics Can you explain how to presenting requirements to all types of stakeholders?
Can you explain what is the agile business analyst ?
Can you explain what is Business standards: IIBA®, BABOK®, CBAP®,CCBA™ ?
Can you explain what is Business standards:  PMP® of PMI® ?
What is standard by IEEE for Business Requirements and System Requirements ?
Can you explain what is Lean 6 Sigma Standard for Project Management ?
Have you ever worked on Full PROJECT from Start (Req Gathering) to End (UAT) ?
Do you have a team of professional business analysts and project manages outside your work ?
Do you have first hand experience on Meetings Management, Artifacts Authoring, Stakeholders Engagement, Analysis & Design
Can you create Project Plan now ?
Can you create  Project Charter or Project Scope Statement (or Doc) or Business Vision Doc or PID (Author- PM )
Can you create Project Charter Supporting Doc like Dependency Diagram, Cost Analysis Doc etc. ?
Can you create Project Requirements Doc (a.k.a BRD, Requirement Doc, VFQ Doc) ?
Can you create  BRD or PRD Supporting Docs like BACD, Flow Diagrams, Retention Plan, Mapping Doc etc. ?
Can you create BRTM ?
Can you create Solution Doc or Functional doc, FRD or Specs or SSD or SRD or DRD, DDD ?
Can you create FRD or SRD supporting Docs like Use Cases (diagrams), wireframes etc. ?
Can you create Test Strategy Doc ?
Can you create Test Plan Doc ?
Can you create Test Scenarios/Test Cases ?
Can you create Test Summary Doc ?
Can you create Project Closure Doc ?
Can you explain what is Business artifacts walkthrough ?
BA/PM Environmental Factors What is Domain and what is business functional areas ?Are there any differences ?
Is there any difference between the term Documentation and Artifacts ?
Is facilitator owner of meetings ? What you do when you are facilitator of a meeting ?
Define deliverable ? What are BA’s Deliverables ?
What is scribing ?
What is Meeting Minutes or MoM ?
Why is it important to start early
How the concept of repeat & redo helps increase accuracy of requirements and solutions ?
Can BA(s) assume and document requirements ? Or everything should come from stakeholders.
Why BA(s) don’t make final decisions on project management activities where there is a PM assigned ? In which case BA(s) make such decision- do some brainstorming ?
What are common types of organizational structures that you see in the larger corporations ?
What is the functional organization and how it differs from projectized organization
What is matrix organization ? What are its types ?
How balanced matrix organization is better way of managing projects ?
IIBA 3 defines Business Analysis framework. What are the Turtle points of this framework ?
Can you be able to write down all BA activities from start to the end of the project ?
What is Wrecked Problem in Project Management & Modeling ?
Can you define Waterfall Importance in relation to the project you recently completed ? What makes waterfall better choice in some situations ?
Do organizations use standard waterfall ? How rare is it ?
When someone refers to waterfall then they also take about the changes – that means that is a reverse waterfall. Correct ?
All the methodologies we see around the world of projects are in fact derivation from standard waterfall. Correct ?
How V model is also a waterfall ?
When should we use V models ?
When should we use Saw Tooth Model ?
Can you create your own model to meet your project need ?
Why program management controls the project process flows & methodologies ? Does it mean you can’t create your own models ?
What PM Blast ?
What is an Orane ?
What is Tick Tac Toe ?
What is super nova ?
What is Hunger Games ?
When you write requirements in enterprise/strategic level then you also write “Project Process Requirements” ( IIBA calls it Project Requirements)? What is covered in “Project Process Requirements”.
Project Process Requirements are same as product requirements ? True or false  (answer – false)
Why a BA needs to know the activities that could be followed to deliver a product by meeting all business and solution requirements ? Does knowing all possible activity improves the project planning and execution efficiency & productivity ? What are these requirements called from BA prospective (answer- “Project Process Requirement”)
What are the biggest challenges with Agile Scrum?
What are the bottlenecks in agile scrum execution ?
Why Sprints are not a real world scenarios ? Why did we called it “Ideal World Sprints” ?
Why Product Owner is also not a real world role ? Why did we called him/her “Ideal World SME” ? Hint – no one knows that much as “Product Owner” is assumed to know.
Why BA(s) can best serve the role of Product Owner and Scrum Master ?
Elimination of Approval from sprints – makes the Agile Scrum lightest but increase the waste and risk of failure when complications in  project are higher than the ideal perfect world of Scrum. Correct ?
Product Owner, as the information controller and single owner of all impacted 100s of applications, systems and business areas is major cause why project in Agile Scrum Fails. True or false
Agile Scrum is light weight project delivery guideline, i.e. it not meant for large complex projects ?  True or false
Why most companies will never hire a BA who is only experienced in Agile Scrum or XP ? Be careful when your resume only reflects you as the agile BA.
Can Agile components be used in their methodologies as the supporting tools ? The answer is yes- most projects now use combination of tools from different methodologies to meet their project need.
Agile Scrum encourages only the internal project team participation and totally ignores stakeholders who are not from project team ? True or false
Lean creates a way of optimizing the process such that the waste is reduced (if not completely eliminated) and the value is gained in collaborative participation . True or false
Lean can be better used as the tool for the value addition and waste reduction than absolute project flow standard ? True or False
Lean encourages the team participation by continually improving everyday ? True or false
Agile is created from Lean ? True or false
What are the values of Lean ? Where do agile differ ?
Lean concepts if applied to a project, the delivery is always optimal. Why ? It is because lean never asks for any special fix steps to follow rather it lets your decide how can you add value, build quality, create knowledge, deliver commitment, respect all, and optimize the whole. It lets you decide which tool to use to measure the waste and added value. You will never know if you are improving or not until you measure it from the past. Lean can be applied to anything not just project management. We will try it with this training and measure your progress.

In the first section of form below: please suggest us how complex the contents are ? Suggest us what particular topic you found complex and recommend us how to make things easier for you. The form below contains second section where you provide how may hours and minutes you spent in this unit. The third section collects your lesson learned from this Unit. All these sections are optional, but very important for us to evaluate and update the contents quality.

Continues Improvement: Feedback, Suggestions & participation assessment form!

Unit  Assignments


ASSIGNMENT : AG eBA L1_Group discussion MARKS : 10  DURATION : 1 week, 3 days

ASSIGNMENT : AG eBA L1_Class Notes MARKS : 10  DURATION : 2 months

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